Both WHO’s constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Right assert that health is a human right, not a privilege for those who can afford it. Over time, that right has made its way into both national and international law. But importantly, the right to health is not simply a noble idea on a piece of paper.
世界卫生组织《组织法》与《世界人权宣言》(Universal Declaration of Human Right)均强调健康是一项人权，而不是那些有经济实力者享有的特权。随着时间的推移，健康权已逐渐载入各国法律和国际法律。但重要的是，健康权绝非只是纸上空谈。
It has been a platform for major improvements in global health. Since 1948, life expectancy has increased by 25 years. Maternal and childhood mortality have plummeted. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio is on the brink. We have turned the tide on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Deaths from malaria have dropped dramatically. New vaccines have made once-feared diseases easily preventable. And there are many other causes for celebration. But even as we continue to struggle with old threats, new ones have arisen. Climate change will have profound effects on health. Antimicrobial resistance has the potential to undo the gains of modern medicine. Vaccine hesitancy is putting millions of young lives at risk. Noncommunicable diseases, including heart disease, stroke, cancer diabetes, hypertension, lung diseases and mental illnesses have become the major killers of our time. And of course, we continue to face the ever-present threat of outbreaks and other health emergencies.
In the past 12 months, WHO has responded to 47 emergencies in 50 countries. We are currently responding to an outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, very near the border with Uganda. As of today, there have been 373 cases and 216 deaths since the outbreak started in August. So far, we have managed to prevent Ebola from spreading across the border, largely because we have much better tools with which to fight Ebola than at any time in history. More than 32,000 people have been vaccinated, which is one of the reasons the outbreak has not spread further than it has. We also have ways to treat those infected. So far, 150 people have been treated with one of four drugs. 14 million travelers have been screened, there have been more than 190 safe and dignified burials, we have done door-to-door advocacy in almost 4000 households and we have trained more than 500 community leaders. But this outbreak has been much more difficult to control, largely because of the security situation in eastern DRC. Armed groups operating in the area conduct regular attacks on the city of Beni, the epicentre of the outbreak. And every time there is an attack, the virus gets an advantage. Vaccination and contact tracing are disrupted.
Health security and health systems are two sides of the same coin. The best long-term investment in protecting and promoting the right to health is to invest in stronger health systems. Because there is simply no other way to achieve universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals than primary health care, with a focus on health promotion and disease prevention. But it will also require WHO and the global health community to work in a much more integrated and coherent way. That’s why WHO and 10 other international health agencies have agreed to work together on a Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-Being. The plan has three strategic approaches: integrate, accelerate and account. First, we have committed to integrate many of our processes to increase our collective efficiency. Second, we have committed to accelerate progress by identifying areas of work in which we can truly bend the curve and make more rapid progress towards the health-related SDGs – like research and development, data and sustainable financing. And third, we have committed to keep each other accountable, both to the people we serve, and to the donors and partners who expect results from the resources they give us.
卫生安全和医疗卫生体系是同一事物的两个方面。保护和促进健康权的最佳长期投资方式是投资更强大的医疗卫生体系。初级卫生保健以促进健康和预防疾病为重点，而除了初级卫生保健，根本没有其他方法可以实现全民健康覆盖与可持续发展目标(Sustainable Development Goals)。但这还需要世卫组织与全球卫生界加强协调合作。这就是世卫组织与其他10个国际卫生机构同意共同推行“全球健康生活与福祉行动计划”(Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-Being)的原因。这项计划有三大战略方法：整合流程、加快进程与承担责任。首先，我们已承诺整合诸多流程，提高集体效率。其次，我们已承诺，通过确定能够真正扭转局势的工作领域(如研发、数据和可持续融资领域)，加速实现与健康相关的可持续发展目标，从而加快进程。最后，我们已承诺人人承担责任，不仅对所服务的对象负责，也要对出资出力、期待其有所成效的捐助者与合作者负责。