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2019年11月CATTI二笔实务真题——英译汉

  2019年11月CATTI二笔实务真题

  回忆版本:

  以下两篇文章都找到了原文出处,但是考试时并没有完全按照原文截取,所以我们按照真题内容进行了部分删减和修改。

  英译汉第一篇:

  节选自国际货币基金组织(IMF)总裁拉加德在第二届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛发表的演讲。

  第一段:So where there is financial connection, we see that rapid improvements in quality of life can quickly follow. In our modern context, there are several important channels to achieving this greater financial connectivity. I want to highlight two today: increased capital mobility and increased financial inclusion.

  哪里形成了金融联系,当地的生活质量就会很快改善。在现代背景下,更深层次的金融互联互通可以通过几个重要渠道来实现。我今天想强调两个渠道:加强资本流动和改善金融包容性。

  第二段:First, enabling capital to flow more freely. Allowing capital to flow across borders can help support inclusive growth. Right now, foreign direct investment —FDI — is only 1.9 percent of GDP in developing countries. Before the global financial crisis, it was at 2.5 percent. Making progress on major infrastructure needs will require capital flows to rise again and to be managed safely. Greater openness to capital flows can also bring down the cost of finance, improve the efficiency of the financial sector, and allow capital to support productive investments and new jobs. Of course, there are also challenges that come with opening up capital markets. Thankfully, we know from experience the elements that are required for success. These include sound financial regulation, transparent rules for investment, and attention to fiscal sustainability.

  第一,确保资本更自由地流动。允许资本跨境流动能帮助支持包容性增长。目前,发展中国家的外国直接投资(FDI)仅占GDP的1.9%;而在全球金融危机之前,这个数字是2.5%。为推进主要基础设施建设进展,需要再次增加资本流动规模,并以安全的方式对其进行管理。对资本流动更加开放也能降低融资成本,提高金融部门效率,允许资本支持生产性投资和新增就业。当然,资本市场开放也会带来挑战。幸运的是,我们从经验中获悉了成功所需的要素,包括完善的金融监管、透明的投资规则以及关注财政可持续性。

  第三段:Second, We also need increased financial inclusion. A few numbers: close to half of the adult popu­lation in low and middle-income Asia-Pacific economies do not have a bank account. Less than 10 percent have ever borrowed from a financial institution. And yet, we know that closing the finance gap is an “economic must-have” for nations to thrive in the 21st century. IMF analysis shows that if the least financially inclusive countries in Asia narrowed the finance gap to the level of Thailand, the poverty rate in those countries could be reduced by nearly 4 percent. How can we get there? In part, through policies that enable more women and rural citizens to access financial services. The financial gender gap for women in developing countries is about 9 percent and has remained largely unchanged since 2011。

  第二,我们还需要改善金融包容性。这里列举几个数字:亚太地区中低收入经济体近一半的成年人口没有银行账户。曾向金融机构借款的人口比重不到10%。然而我们知道,各国若要在21世纪繁荣发展,弥合金融缺口是一项“必须完成的经济任务”。国际货币基金组织的分析表明,如果亚洲金融包容性最弱的国家将金融缺口缩窄至泰国的水平,这些国家的贫困率能降低近4%。如何实现这一目标?一方面,制定能使更多妇女和农村居民获得金融服务的政策。在发展中国家,妇女面临的金融性别缺口约为9%,且自2011年来基本保持不变。

  第四段:There is no quick fix, but we know that Fintech can play a catalyzing role. In Cambodia, for example, strong public-private partnerships in supporting mobile finance has led to a tripling in the number of micro-financial institutions since 2011. These institutions have now provided loans to over 2 million new borrowers, representing nearly 20 percent of the adult population. Many of these citizens had never had a bank account. Now they can save for the future and perhaps even start a business of their own.

  这个问题没有快速解决之道,但我们知道金融科技能发挥催化作用。例如,柬埔寨通过强有力的公私合作关系支持移动金融发展,自2011年来微型金融机构的数量增加了两倍。目前,这些机构已向200多万个新借款者提供贷款,占成年人口的比重接近20%,这些公民很多从未开立银行账户。现在,他们可以通过储蓄规划未来,甚至也许可以自行创业。

  第五段:These are ideas that can work everywhere. But countries have to be willing to partner and learn from each other. The IMF and World Bank launched the Bali Fintech Agenda last October, which lays out key principles — from developing financial markets to safeguarding financial integrity — that can help each nation as it strives for greater financial inclusion.

  这些理念适用于所有国家,但这些国家必须有意愿开展合作并相互学习。国际货币基金组织和世界银行去年10月启动了“巴厘岛金融科技议程”。该议程阐述的核心原则——从发展金融市场到维护金融诚信——能帮助所有国家,因为其旨在改善金融包容性。

  英译汉第二篇:

  节选自Nasa to pretend asteroid is about to smash into Earth。

  http://earthmysterynews.com/2019/04/29/nasa-to-pretend-asteroid-is-about-to-smash-into-earth/

  第一段:NASA is going to pretend a deadly asteroid is on its way, to practise for a real one. The “tabletop exercise” will allow the space agency and the other government organisations that will be tasked with responding to such an event to simulate their response, ahead of the possibility of a real example. The scenario will see a very realistic but nonetheless fictional disaster, in which an asteroid will be headed for Earth. The scenario has been developed by one of the Nasa organisations tasked with studying such near-earth objects, or NEOs. Such exercises are used across the disaster response sector, to ensure that the real responses are as fast and effective as possible.

  第二段:“These exercises have really helped us in the planetary defense community to understand what our colleagues on the disaster management side need to know,” said Johnson, NASA’s Planetary Defense Officer. “This exercise will help us develop more effective communications with each other and with our governments.” Nasa and other organisations have spent more than 20 years scanning the skies for NEOs, looking for asteroids and comets that come within 30 million miles of Earth’s orbit. Groups such as Nasa’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office (PDCO行星防御协调办公室) as well as the European Space Agency’s Space Situational Awareness-NEO Segment(欧洲航天局空间态势感知近地天体部门) and the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN国际小行星预警系统) have been working to better communicate the danger that such objects pose to Earth.

  第三段:There is no strict script in such an exercise. Instead, it will be used to test out how NEO observers, space agency officials, emergency managers, decision makers and citizens would respond to the threat of an impact. Those taking part will discuss possible preparations: how they would explore the asteroid, work out the best ways of deflecting it and dealing with its impact effects. Nasa has already participated in such exercises, working on some with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Those exercises brought representatives from a variety of different federal agencies, including the departments of Defense and State.

  第四段:Previous exercises showed that the focus of emergency management officials was not on scientific details. Instead, they just want to know when, where and how an asteroid will hit the Earth, as well as what sort of damage is done. Nasa continues to work on that science, however, in an attempt to better improve humanity’s ability to predict the exact location and effects of any impact.

  第五段:“NASA and FEMA will continue to conduct periodic exercises with a continually widening community of US government agencies and international partners,” said Lewis of the Response Operations Division for FEMA. “They are a great way for us to learn how to work together and meet each other’s needs and the objectives laid out in the White House National NEO Preparedness Action Plan.”

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