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新冠病毒的最新研究:攻击中枢神经系统,演化出两个亚型(双语)

  新冠肺炎的病例开始在全球多个国家持续增加,对于新冠病毒的研究也越来越深入。

  澎湃新闻3月4日报道,北京地坛医院首次报告了新冠病毒攻击中枢神经系统的病例。

  A Chinese doctor has warned the novel coronavirus can attack a person’s central nervous system. It is the first case that proves the novel coronavirus can damage people’s central nervous system, media reported Wednesday.

  北京地坛医院官方微博显示,2月25日,56岁的许先生从地坛医院出院。他是一名新冠肺炎危重型患者,同时合并脑炎。截止3月4日7时,地坛医院累计收治新冠肺炎患者150人,许先生是唯一的新型冠状病毒性肺炎并脑炎患者。

新冠病毒的最新研究:攻击中枢神经系统,演化出两个亚型(双语)

  而此前针对SARS(严重急性呼吸综合征)、MERS(中东呼吸综合征)的研究也均有显示,引发这两种疾病的冠状病毒同样有引起中枢神经系统损伤的案例。

  北京地坛医院ICU主任刘景院参与了这名56岁患者的救治,他表示一旦患者出现意识障碍,医生应及时进行脑脊液等相关检查,从而进一步降低危重病人的病死率。

  Liu Jingyuan, dean of the ICU department of the Beijing Ditan Hospital and attending doctor of the 56-year-old patient, warned that doctors should check cerebrospinal fluid if patients suddenly slip in and out of consciousness, in order to lower the fatality rate of critical patients. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital on February 25.

  该患者于1月24日以新冠肺炎、危重型、呼吸衰竭收入院。治疗数日后,医生检查发现患者出现颌面及口角频繁抽搐等神经系统紊乱症状。

  The patient was hospitalized one month earlier for respiratory failure. Doctors conducted gene sequencing on his cerebrospinal fluid as he showed symptoms of neurological disorder like twitching on the face after days of treatments.

  北京地坛医院重症医学科、检验科及中国疾控中心传染病所联合工作组经过检测检查,最终临床诊断病毒性脑炎。通过一系列针对病毒性脑炎的治疗与护理,患者于2月25日康复出院。

新冠病毒的最新研究:攻击中枢神经系统,演化出两个亚型(双语)

  3月3日,国家卫生健康委员会发布了《新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案(试行第七版)》,其中指出新冠病毒可能会对包括脑组织在内的器官造成伤害。

  China issued the seventh treatment guide for COVID-19 on Tuesday that includes results of autopsies, which clarifies that the novel coronavirus could damage various organs including brain tissue.

  同时,针对新冠病毒是否变异的研究,也是目前学界的焦点。

  日前,中国科学团队发现,新冠病毒演化出了两个亚型。

  The novel coronavirus has evolved into two major subtypes, a Chinese study has revealed.

  3月3日,中国科学院主办的《国家科学评论》(National Science Review)发表题为《关于SARS-CoV-2的起源和持续进化》的论文。

  The study, titled On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2, was published on the National Science Review of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on Tuesday (March 3).

新冠病毒的最新研究:攻击中枢神经系统,演化出两个亚型(双语)

  论文通过对目前为止最大规模的103个新冠病毒全基因组分子进化分析,发现病毒株已发生了149个突变点,而且多数是近期产生的。该研究揭示:新冠病毒已经演化出L和S两个亚型。其中101个属于这两个亚型。

  By analyzing the genome-wide molecular evolution of 103 novel coronavirus samples, scientists found 101 samples that can be categorized into S-cov and L-cov based on 149 mutation spots on virus strains.

  基因组数据表明,感染S型的比例占30%, L型的感染比例占70%。S型与蝙蝠来源的冠状病毒在进化树上更接近,从而得出S型相对更古老的结论。L型在武汉爆发疫情的早期阶段更为普遍。

  The paper states that S type, accounting for 30 percent, is closer to the bat-related coronavirus and is relatively older, while the L type was more prevalent in the early stages of the outbreak in Wuhan.

  人为干预可能对L亚型施加了更大的选择性压力,如果没有这些干预,L亚型可能更具侵略性和扩散得更快速。

  Human intervention may have placed more severe selective pressure on the L type, which might be more aggressive and spread more quickly than the S type.

  不过,论文作者也指出研究数据很有限。L型如何从S型演化而来,以及变异如何影响病毒传播和发病机制,依然是未知数。

  However, the authors highlighted the fact the data examined in the study is very limited. How L type strains evolved from S type, as well as how these mutations would affect the transmission and pathogenesis of the virus, are still unknown.

  样本显示,大部分患者只感染了L亚型或S亚型中的一个。但其中一位近期有过武汉旅行史的63岁美国患者却很有可能同时感染了L型和S型新冠病毒。不过,该论文作者表示目前还无法排除新突变型的可能性。

  Scientists also found most patients caught either the L or S type of novel coronavirus strain. But there might be exceptions to the rule that should be followed with further research. For example, the study said a 63-year-old female patient in Chicago had likely contracted both L and S types of novel coronavirus strains when she traveled in Wuhan and returned to the United States on Jan 13.

  另据新华网报道,巴西研究人员对病毒基因测序的结果显示,巴西两个确诊病例体内的病毒有所不同。巴西阿道弗·卢茨研究所和圣保罗大学医学院的研究人员对这两个病例体内的病毒进行了基因测序,结果发现首个病例体内的病毒与在德国发现的病毒更加相似,而第二个病例体内的病毒则与在英国发现的病毒更加相似。二者与在中国发现的病毒也有所不同。据介绍,这两名患者都是今年2月在意大利感染后回到巴西的。

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