您的位置 首页 阅读辅导

一分钟搞定专四专八阅读!原来处处都是套路

  专四专八阅读——9大文中常设题处

  一、篇首、篇尾,段首句(处)、段尾句(处)

  西方人写文章时惯用演绎法:即文章一开始先给出自己的核心观点,然后具体一步步论证。因此,这类文章的主题句往往出现在首段或段首句。文章的首段或尾段往往提出或总结出文章的主旨或结论。

  在其他结构的文章中,首段的末句或第二段的首句也是主题句的高发命题点,特别是当文章的首句后出现转折性陈述,而所涉及的主体事物没有发生转变时,那么文章的主题句往往是转折词后出现的与首句相对立的结论。

  主题句在末段出现的情况相对比较少,只有当文章首句出现了转折性的陈述,而且观点和论述的主体事物均发生了改变,主题句才会在文章结尾出现。

  【例1】The best psychological place from which to speak is an unselfconscious self consciousness, providing the illusion of being natural. Studies suggest that this state of “flow”, as psychologists call it, is very satisfying.(2008年Text D)

  100.In the last paragraph the author recommends that ____.

  [A] you forget about your nervousness.

  [B] you feel natural and speak naturally.

  [C] you may feel nervous, but appear naturally.

  [D] you may imagine yourself to be natural.

  【解析】选[C]。篇尾设题。最后一段首句提到,演讲的最佳心理学位置是处于无意识的自我意识状态,即幻想着表现自然的状态。由此可知[D]为答案。

  二、列举处

  列举处是指用First(ly)…, Second(ly)…, Third(ly)…, Finally …;Not only… but also;In addition;Furthermore;Moreover;Above all;On the one hand …,on the other hand …等表示顺承关系的词语列举出的事实。但有时也会没有明显的标志词,需要通过上下文来判断。列举处是考查事实细节的主要出题点,常出现Except或Not题型。考生在解答时要根据题干和选项中的关键词找到原文中相应的列举处,然后对照原文与选项做出选择。

  【例2】 When someone speaks of a “jovial mood” or a “herculean effort,” he or she is using words with origins in mythology…Many common words, such as the names for the days of the week and the months of the year, also come from mythology. Wednesday derives from the ancient Norse king of the gods, Woden, and Thursday was originally Thor’s day, in honour of Thor, the god of thunder. As a matter of fact, all the planets, except the one we live on, bear names that come from Roman mythology… (2008年Text B)

  88. According to the passage, which of the following does NOT have origins in myths or legends?

  [A] Jovial.

  [B] Wednesday.

  [C] Earth.

  [D] March.

  【解析】选[C]。列举处设题。本题题干关键词have origins in myths or legends恰好与文章最后一段的with origins in mythology相对应。由该段最后…all the planets, except the one we live on…可知,[C]应为本题答案。本题虽无明显的标志词,但不难看出其他三项的内容在该段的前几句都有被列举到。

  三、特殊句式、复杂句处

  复杂句包括各种插入语、长句、从句、不定式等,命题者主要考查考生对句子之间的指代关系、文章段落的理解等等。解答这类阅读题时,考生一定要注意弄清复杂句的层次逻辑关系。复杂句(尤其是表示条件或让步的主从复合句中)也常暗含着作者的观点和态度;特殊句型(如not … but … 等)或特殊句式及虚拟语气也以不同一般陈述句的方式,预示着所说内容的重要,这部分内容一般是与作者的观点态度有着密切的关系。

  【例3】Nowadays, a great deal has changed. In a large number of cases factory workers earn as much, if not more, than their middle-class supervisors. Social security and laws to improve job-security, combined with a general rise in the standard of living since the mid-fifties of the 20th century, have made it less necessary than before to worry about “tomorrow”. Working-class people seem slowly to be losing the feeling of inferiority they had in the past… (2006年Text B )

  89. Working-class people’s sense of security increased as a result of all the following factors EXCEPT________.

  [A] better social security

  [B] more job opportunities

  [C] higher living standard

  [D] better legal protection

  【解析】选[B]。复杂句处设题。本题题干线索词sense of security为上述段落第二句中made it less necessary to worry about “tomorrow”的同义转述,因此解答本题的关键是要正确理解该句。该句提到,social security,laws to improve job security,rise in the standard of living,这些因素都降低了工人阶级的人们对“未来”的担心;因此,只有[B]文中没提到,故为答案。

  四、因果关系处

  表示因果关系的句子也是命题者所青睐的出题来源,因为因果句阐述了两个事件或者事实之间的内在联系,是作者进行分析或者得出结论的地方。出题者为了考查考生的阅读能力和逻辑分析能力,经常会把含有因果关系的句子倒过来考,因此选项中因变成了果、果变成了因,考生需要注意辨别实际的因果关系,防止受到迷惑。

  表示因果关系的词语有:because, because of, so, for, since, as, thus, therefore, consequently, in consequence, as a result; result from, result in, cause, originate from, lead to, attribute to, derive from; base, basis, reason, result, consequence等。有时候文章中虽然没有出现表示因果关系的标志性词语,但是在逻辑上也存在着因果关系,这个时候考生就需要自己进行判断和推理。

  【例4】Public speaking fills most people with dread. Humiliation is the greatest fear; self-exposure and failing to appeal to the audience come a close second. Women hate it most, since girls are pressurized from an early age to be concerned with appearances of all kinds.

  (2008年Text B)

  95. Women hate public speaking most mainly because of .

  [A] their upbringing very early on.

  [B] their inability to appeal to the audience.

  [C] their sense of greater public pressure.

  [D] their sense of greater humiliation.

  【解析】选[A]。因果关系处设题。从表因果关系的主从复合句可知,女性最恨公众演讲的原因是他们从小就受到外界压力,要注意自己各方面的言行。因此[A]正确。

  五、代词照应

  在阅读文章中,为避免重复罗嗦,通常会用代词替代前面提到过的人或物。在上文谈论的人或物不止一个的情况下,代词的指代内容就变得不易辨别。因此解题的关键就在于找到该代词的前指,弄清句子中的语义关系和逻辑意义。

  【例5】Public speaking fills most people with dread…Women hate it most, since girls are pressurized from an early age to be concerned with appearances of all kinds.

  Most people have plenty of insecurities, and this seems like a situation that will bring them out. If you were under pressure to be perfect, you are terrified of falling in the most public of ways.(2008年Text D )

  96. “This” in Paragraph Two refers to _____.

  [A] insecurity.

  [B] sense of failure.

  [C] public speaking.

  [D] pressure.

  【解析】选[C]。本题考查代词指代处。第二段首句谈到,大部分人都有很多不安全感,“this”是将这些不安全感全都显现出来的一种情况。联系上下文,极易被[A]干扰,但仔细阅读,发现该句中的them指代的才是insecurities;this指的是上文已出现过的public speaking,故[C]正确。

英语阅读技巧频道 WwW.YIngyu.lA 英/`语`.啦

本文来自网络,不代表英语啦立场,转载请注明出处:https://www.yingyu.la/yingyuyuedu/yuedufudao/256335.shtml

为您推荐

联系我们

联系我们

0898-88881688

在线咨询: QQ交谈

邮箱: email@wangzhan.com

工作时间:周一至周五,9:00-17:30,节假日休息

关注微信
微信扫一扫关注我们

微信扫一扫关注我们

关注微博
返回顶部