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初中英语必考语法:过去完成时讲解及练习(附答案)


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  一. 过去完成时的概念与结构

  概念:表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作,即“过去的过去( past-in-the-past )”。

  构成:“助动词 had + 过去分词”,其中 had 通用于各种人称。

  They had already had breakfast before they arrived at the hotel.在到达旅馆之前,他们已经吃过了早饭。

  She had finished writing the composition by 10:00 this morning.今天早晨10点之前,她已经写完了作文。

  二. 过去完成时的用法

  用法1. 表示一个动作或状态在过去某一时间或动作之前已经完成或结束,即发生在“过去的过去”。例如:

  When I woke up, it had stopped raining.我醒来时,雨已经停了。(雨停发生在醒来之前,即“过去的过去”)

  用法2. 表示某一动作或状态在过去某时之前已经开始,一直延续到这一过去时间,而且动作尚未结束,仍然有继续下去的可能。例如:

  By the end of last year, he had worked in the factory for twenty years. 到去年年底为止,他已经在这个工厂工作了20年。( 到去年年底为止已工作了 20 年,还有继续进行下去的可能)

  三. 过去完成时的判断依据

  1. 由时间状语来判定

  一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有:

  (1)by + 过去的时间点,例如:

  I had finished reading the novel by nine o’clock last night. 到昨天晚上九点钟为止,我已经读完了这本小说。

  (2)by the end of + 过去的时间点,例如:

  We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term.到上学期末为止,我们已经学了两千多单词。

  (3)before + 过去的时间点,例如:

  They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.在上周三之前,他们已经植了六百棵树。

  2. 由“过去的过去”来判定

  过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指在过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在:

  (1)宾语从句中

  当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。例如:

  She said that she had seen the film before. 她说她之前看过这部电影。

  (2)状语从句中

  在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。例如:

  When I got to the station, the train had already left.当我到达车站的时候,火车已经离开了。

  注意:before, after 引导的时间状语从句中,由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。例如:

  Where did you study before you came here?在你来这里之前,你在哪里学习?

  After he closed the door, he left the classroom.他关上门后,离开了教室。

  (3)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示”原本…,未能…”,例如:

  We had thought that you would come, but you didn’t.我原认为你会来的,但是你没有。

  3. 根据上、下文来判定

  I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn’t seen each other since he went to Beijing.昨天我在街上遇到了王涛。自从他去了北京我们一直还没有见过彼此。

  四. 过去完成时与一般过去时的区别

  虽然这两种时态都表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,但在使用时应注意以下两点:

  1. 时间状语不同,过去完成时在时间上强调“过去的过去”;而一般过去时只强调过去某一特定的时间。试比较:

  They had arrived at the station by ten yesterday.到昨天十点为止,他们已经到达了车站。

  They arrived at the station at ten yesterday.他们在昨天十点的时候到达车站。

  2. 在没有明确的过去时间状语作标志时,谓语动词动作发生的时间先后须依据上下文来判断,先发生的用过去完成时,后发生的则用一般过去时。例如:

  She was very happy. Her whole family were pleased with her, too. She had just won the first in the composition competition. 她很高兴。她的全家对她也很满意。她刚刚在作文比赛中得了第一。

  五、练习及答案

  【典型考例】John and I____ friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas party. But we_____ each other a couple of times before that. A. had been; have met B. have been; have metC. had been; had met D. have been; had met

  【析】正确答案是D。句意是:约翰和我是8年的朋友了。我们第一次是在一词圣诞聚会上互相认识的。但是这那之前我们就已经碰过好几次面了。第一句指从过去延续到现在的状况,应使用现在完成时“have(has)+过去分词”,第二句表示在我们成为朋友之前过去的动作,即“过去的过去”,应使用过去完成时“had+过去分词”,因此本题的正确答案为D。

  一、

  1. We _____________ (paint) the house before we ______________ (move) in.

  2. That rich old man _____________ (make) a will before he _____________ (die).

  3. They _____________ (study) the map of the country before they ________ (leave).

  4. The robbers _____________ (run )away before the policemen _______ (arrive).

  5. I __________ (turn) off all the lights before I ____________ (go) to bed.

  6. Paul __________ (go) out with Jane after he __________ (make) a phone call.

  7. Tom __________ (say) he ___________ (read) the book twice.

  8. Our plan ____________ (fail ) because we _____________ (make) a bad mistake.

  9. She told me she _________________(be) to Chongqing three times.

  10.He said he _____________already_________(give) the book to the teacher.

  11.When I ______________(get) at the station, the train ____________________(leave).

  12.We _______________(learn) about 4000 English words by the end of last term.

  13. I waited until he _______________(finish) his homework.

  14. We were surprised at what she ________already ______(do)

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